1. Bandera, the largest volcano in the Ice Caves region, erupted about 10,000 years ago. There are about 29 volcanoes in the area, and many can be seen in the distance when walking the Bandera trail. How many volcanoes can you see?
2. Bandera Volcano is called a cinder cone? How does a volcano like Bandera form?
3. What were the two stages in the eruption of Bandera Volcano?
4. Do you know the depth, width, and elevation of Bandera Volcano?
5. Bandera poured out a tremendous lava flow. How long is the total length of the Bandera flow?
6. The type of lava found in the Bandera Flow is called? How does this kind of lava flow form? How do you think this name originated?
7. The Ice Cave is located in a part of the lava flow called a lava tube? Hot molten lava can reach temperatures above? How does a lava tube form?
8. The length of the Bandera lava tube, considered to be one of the longest in North America, is about ?
9. There are many rugged formations in the lava flow. Do you know how a spatter cone forms?
10. The lava flow is called El Malpais in Spanish. What does El Malpais mean?
11. The Ice Cave, located in a portion of the collapsed lava tube, remains frozen all year.This means that the temperature never goes above?
12. One of the reasons the ice in the cave remains frozen is that the lava acts as an?
13. Another reason the ice remains frozen has to do with air flow. How could the air flow into the cave vary from winter to summer?
14. Have you ever seen an open top freezer in a supermarket? What two laws of Physics allow food to remain frozen under such conditions? Do you think this principal could apply to the Ice Cave? Explain!
15. The depth of the ice floor is about? The ice wall was probably caused by? Removal of ice from the Ice Cave was stopped in 1946. What has been happening to the floor ever since?
16. What two forms of plant life thrive near the entrance of the the cave? The green tint of the ice is caused by an? Why are these plants so unusual to the Southwest?
17. The Ice Cave was known to the Pueblo Indians as the? The ancient Indians who used the cave were the?
18. The ruins, pottery, and artifacts found near the Ice Cave date the ancient Indian use of the area to about?
19. The Ice Cave area is rich in flora. Can you identify the 6 major trees found along the trails?
20. One of the oldest trees in the lava is a? The age of this tree is? How old do some of the other trees of the area live to be?
21. The Ice Cave area is also rich in wildlife. List below the animals you see during your field trip.